Graphomotor skills

Relying on the gross and large body movements (gross motor skills) they have acquired, children develop smaller, more refined movements (fine motor skills). These skills must be nurtured and encouraged by material and specific assignments to become automatic: e.g. with modelling clay, toy building blocks,  plug-in toy building blocks, puzzles, bead stringing, ribbon tying and the like. This variety of different, well-trained combinations of movements will finally give rise to graphomotor skills. The lines drawn by children during their first years of life become more and more refined and form the basis for children’s ability to write. During this phase, children already deliberately start practising various characters while increasingly monitoring and controlling the shape of the characters drawn (graphomotor skills).


Successful handwriting requires learning to make the necessary joins: various pulling and pushing pencil movements, straight and curved lines, arcs, dashes, upstrokes, downstrokes, changes in tilt and direction as well as different points to start from, but not so much the accuracy of letter shapes. The ability to make these joins finally results in the acquisition of graphomotor skills, in particular with respect to cursive handwriting.  Dimensionally accurate and fluent graphomotor skills bring forth correct spelling and fluency in writing.


Graphomotor skills, in particular, have to be extensively practised and encouraged. Fluent handwriting is not simply acquired overnight – kids need to make an effort! Handwriting requires certain elementary motor skills: purposeful control of movements, spatial orientation, visuomotor skills and competences.